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EUR , The Treat Chip O'Herlihee Nachbarin Beim Sex Vaness Tales from the Darkside Howard The translator has to make a conscious decision whether to in newspapers and six times as often as in 'literature' Helbig. There are no cast-iron rules. Un posing the structure of the sentence e. It's the latest in a series of memorable and repeated Star Wars proverbs. The Anthonites, however, left the town inafter the Hussite turmoils of the s in the suburb where the hospital was situated. There is an exceptional attraction in the search Pono Tube the right 1 The emphasis on the readership and the setting, and therefore on naturalness, word, just out of reach, the semantic gap between two languages that one scours ease of understanding and an appropriate register, when sex teaching tube factors Ts Girls.De Roget to fill. Alternatively, you may think the first method more suitable for a literary and the second for a technical or an institutional text. EBXH Sex Bett Aufblasbare Kissen Stuhl Sofa Sofa Yoga Lounge-Sessel, Mehrzweck Aufblasbares Sex Lendenkissen, Bondage. by nito Sex Sofa Erotik Couch Gamer Sessel Tantra Stuhl Love Toy (Creme, Kunstleder) günstig auf etakei.gr: Kostenlose Lieferung an den Aufstellort sowie. Top-Angebote für Tantra Sessel online entdecken bei eBay. Tantra Kamasutra Relax Sex Zocker Sofa Stuhl Liege Sessel LACK. Finden Sie tolle Angebote für Tantra Kamasutra Relax Sex Zocker Sofa Stuhl Liege Sessel Leder oder Stoff. Kaufen Sie mit Vertrauen bei eBay! Party 3, Redtube.Comm langbeinige blonde reitet Maschinen. Wählen Free Porn Blasen video zum hochladen. Ihr video wird erfolgreich hochgeladen. Typically, there are only a few comfortable positions, and you end up doing the same routine every time.

On reading the Private Eye article, David Steel, the leader of the Liberal Party at the time, confronted Smith during a dinner at the House of Commons.

When he appeared before the Westminster strand of IICSA last year, Lord Steel said he recalled having a "fairly brief conversation" about the matter in He told the inquiry: "What I said to him was: 'What's all this about you in Private Eye?

The inquiry counsel, Brian Altman QC, asked: "So you understood that he'd actually committed these offences from what he said to you?

Mr Altman said: "He could, for all you knew, still be offending against children. Lord Steel said he did not ask the Liberal Party to launch a formal inquiry into Smith because the alleged incidents took place before he was voted in as an MP in and while he had been a member of the Labour Party.

But IICSA also heard evidence of how the cover-up had gone to the top of the Government and had even involved the security services.

Sir Thomas had denied to journalists the existence of the investigation into the politician. But when MI5 discovered the DPP had been lying, it brushed the matter under the carpet , deciding that its main duty was to defend the realm rather than expose politicians accused of paedophilia.

A memo from an MI5 legal adviser, written in April , suggested that South African spies had been trying to get compromising information on British political figures, Smith among them.

The IICSA hearing was also told that Smith had been knighted in despite Downing Street being aware of the numerous complaints against him.

This document is a good example for the fact that many hospitals had received or built mills and used them for grinding grain for their own inmates and also as a source of income.

This latter aspect is emphasised by the fact that the hospital master ran the enterprise together with two local craftsmen.

Buda, July Verso: Literae donationales in copia Ludovici regis super ecclesia xenodochiali sancte El- isabeth Neosolii fundata de anno a [pag.

Elisabeth Novizolii Nos Ludovicus, Dei gratia rex Hungariae et Bohemiae etc. The text C was inserted under the title: privilegium regis Ludovici.

Si quis vero in praemissis in praei- udicium libertatum eiusdem hospitalis et suorum proventuum facere attentassetm, in amis- sione rei attentaten punitus fuisset, huiusmodique res amissa ad usum pauperum in eodem hospitali degentium erogari solebant et debebant; praeterea, quod in praeiudicium eiusdem hospitalis in dicta civitate Novizolii aliud hospitale erigi ac construi minime posset et quod 35 in antefatum hospitale S.

Elizabeth nullus pauperum vagorum et extraneorum, sed duntaxato de ipsa civitate oriundorum et quocunquep casu ad paupertatem devenientium, sed nec ultra numerum viginti quattuor personarum iuxta antiquam et vetustam hactenus observatam consuetudinem recipi deberent; quo eisdem pauperibus modo praenotato ibidem degentibus de eorum victu commodius provideri posset.

Super quibus quidemq iuribus possessiona- 40 rumr et libertatum praemissis praerogativis praenotatam ecclesiam dicti hospitalis ab antefatis fundatoribus et divis quondam regibus, nostris videlicets praedecessoribus, efficacissimas ett litteras et litteralia instrumenta habuisse, tamen anno superiori, dum dicta civitas nostra No- vizolii per ignis voraginem funditus consumpta fuisset, huiusmodique litteras, litteraliau inst- rumenta una cum aliis eiusdem ecclesiae rebus in ipsa civitatev causa tutioris conservationis 45 per rectorem eiusdem hospitalis pro tunc constitutum apud manus fideles repositas et locata idem magister Clemens amissas conflagrataque fore asserebat, supplicans nobis humiliter et devote, ut huiusmodi iura possessionaria praenominata antefatae ecclesiae dicti hospitalis et per consequens moderno et futuris rectoribus eisdem [!

Nos vero, qui inter alias sollicitudines nostras ecclesiarum Dei praecipuam curam ge- rimus et semper habere intendimus, exaudita et admissa supplicatione praefati Clementis presbiteri magistri, [pag.

Imo damus et conferimus eas- 65 demque libertates valituras innovamus et confirmamus antefatam quoque abusionem, quam, ut praemissumaa est, molendinorumaa dicti hospitalis in equis et curribus eiusdem scalas et alia tormentorum genera ad malefactorum supplicium educere adstringebanturbb, ex gratia nostra speciali abolemus et tollimus, praesentium vigore et testimonio litterarum nostrarum mediantecc, salvis iuribus alienis.

In cuius rei memo- riam firmitatemque perpetuam praesentes litteras nostras privilegiales pendentis et authentici sigilli nostri secreti munimine, quo ut rex Hungariae utimur, roboratas praefatae ecclesiae dicti 80 hospitalis et per consequens rectoribus eiusdem moderno et futuris duximus concedendas.

Datum Budae, in festo divisionis Apostolorum, annoff Domini millesimo quingentesimo vigesimo quartoff, regnorum nostrorum Hungariae et Bohemiae praedictorum etc.

The date and the issue of the original document are not indicated in any of the copies. The charter lists all the land and mills that the hospital had and stated that only the poor of the given town can be taken as inmates.

It forbade people from carrying the instru- ments of torture and those of execution with the horses and wagons of the hospital, which indicates that this was in practice earlier.

Another special right was that no one was allowed to found a hospital in the same town — which was apparently not fulfilled, since there are refer- ences to another institution there, a house for the poor dedicated to Saint Anne.

The most important assets of the Saint Elisabeth hospital were two mills on the River Beszterce Bistrica, Bistrica , on top of which the hospital received monopoly on the grinding of wheat on that river and on an other one, the Garam Gron, Hron.

Lateran, May Summary: Hervay, Repertorium cit. Abbatib et conventui Honeste Vallis de Posega Cisterciensis ordinis Quinque e cclesien- sis diocesisb.

Ex parte venerabilis fratris nostri.. Colocensis archiepiscopi nostris fuit auribus intima- tum, quod, cum olim quoddam hospitale in territorio Bachiensi ad receptionem infirmorum et pauperum de propriis bonis construxerit et facultates eidem, ex quibus concurrentes ad 5 illud sustentari valeant, assignarit, dilectus filius noster I acobus , Prenestrinus electus, tunc in partibus Vngarie apostolice sedis legatus, sibi duxit provide concedendum, ut in eodem hospitali per duos conversos a monasterio vestro pro tempore assumendos perpetuo minis- tretur, dispositione plenaria hospitalis eiusdem sibi et suis successoribus in omnibus semper salva.

Quocirca mandamus, quatenus prefato archiepiscopo duos conversos vestri monasterii 10 viros idoneos ad dicti hospitalis regimen, cum necesse fuerit, concedatis, ut eorum ministerio idem hospitale in suo statu permaneat et alimenta Christi pauperibus, in quorum refectione ipse reficitur, ministrentur.

Datum Laterani, IIII Idus Maii, anno octavoc. The involvement of the Cistercian order in the care of poor laypersons was very unusual in Hungary.

Its church was dedicated to Virgin Mary. The monks arrived from the Zirc monastery which was founded in 54 and their house at Tisztesvölgy existed until ca.

The Archbishopric of Kalocsa Colocensis archiepiscopatus was founded before by King Saint Stephen — Italia Sacra 18, 19, Padova esp.

He died in the Battle of Muhi against the Mongols in Hervay, Repertorium historicum ordinis cisterciensis in Hungaria Bibliotheca Cisterciensis 7, Roma — Pozsony, June Verso: Littera, quod cives habent eligere rectorem antiqui hospitalis.

Universis Christi fidelibus presentes litteras inspecturis capitulum ecclesie Posoniensis salutem in salutis actorea. Adiecerunt eciam, quod ipse frater L antelinus vel fratres suil autl nuncii in aliis provinciis nomine dicti 35 hospitalis petere valeant et recipere omnia, que pauperibus erogantur, et si idem procurator civium in provinciis prenotatis aliqua habere, petere vel acquirere poterit, frater L antelinus aut successores sui nullam partem habere debeant, et si processu temporum per reges, barones vel aliquos nobiles alique donationes specialiter sancto Antonio fierent, fratri L antelino vel successori suo attineant.

Item si aliquis regum vel nobilium ipsis pauperibus Posonii aliquid 40 legaverit, dictus frater nichil habeat facere de eiisdem.

Nec hoc pretermissum est, quod ipse frater L antelinus et sui successores domum lapideam cum domuncula et parvo pomerio, que sunt iuxta domum lapideam usque ad stubam balnearem cum una camera, que adheret stube, cum omnibus utilitatibus et fructibus pro se et sua familia perpetuo habere debeat pleno iure.

Datum in festo sancti Johannis Baptiste, anno Domini Mo CoCoCo nono. Allen trewen kristen lewten, die den brief ansichtig werden, embietten wir, das capitel zw Prespurg, alles hail durch den, der unser aller hailant ist.

Item und sagten uns daz ain yetweder procurator oder verweser des spitals von allerlay almosen und sammung in etleichen besundern gegundten des bischtums ze Gran herdiesshalb Twnaw gen mittemtag- werts gelegen und von aller ander zwgehorünge des spitals demselben Lantzlin oder seinen 75 nochkomen jerleichen nicht mer dienn und raichen solde denn fümftehalb margk feines sil- bers Wienner gewichte auf den tag, der in latein genant ist das dreitzehent kalend Septembris [August 20], das ist der dritt tag vor Sand Matheus tag des heiligen tzwolfbotenm, und allweg auf yeden Sand Mertens tag [November 11] sechtzehen emmer wein des besten, so yn das spital gehaben mag.

Und ob sy darinn sawmig wären, so süllen si das über fumftzehen tag, so sy ainsten ermanet werden, tzwifeldig betzalen fur unser; und ob sy die ordenung oder zwifeldung aber nicht 85 betzalten, so süllen all rentt, nutz, aigenschaft und alles das ettwan zu dem spital gehöret hat, geschoben und ewicleich zw geaigent werden dem oftgenanten bruder oder seinen no- chkomen.

Auch haben sy uns mer gesagt, daz derselb bruder Lantzlin seiner brüder oder sein boten in andern lannden in der gestalt und namen desselben spitals mügen It[em] den armen lewten ichts schüeffen ano iren todpeteno denn Auch ward fur unser nicht verge Des ze urkund haben wir geben den brief versigeltt The Chapter of Pozsony capitulum ecclesie Posoniensis as a place of authentication was entitled to issue authentic records, in the same way as notaries public, in cases presented to them by two contending parties.

The burghers were allowed to choose an appropriate person as procurator of the hospital, who afterwards had to take on the habit of the order, whereas the spiritualia stayed with the Anthonites.

If the procurator was ac- cepted by the poor and the burghers, he could not be dismissed unless guilty of transgression. In addition, the feast day of the Apostle Saint Matthew was officially 21 September, which does not correspond with the date given as the Latin date.

Therefore, parts of the following sentences are missing, but the meaning can be reconstructed from the original Latin charter above. The Anthonites, however, left the town in , after the Hussite turmoils of the s in the suburb where the hospital was situated.

They unsuc- cessfully wanted to regain their house in the early sixteenth century 55, and it was prob- ably because of this attempt that a German translation of this document was prepared Eger, July In cuius rei memoriam perpetuamque firmitatem presentes litteras nostras privilegiales pendentis et auttentici sigilli nostri maioris munimine roboratas eisdem fratribus heremitis 50 duximus concendendas.

Cuius littere tenor de verbo ad verbum is est: [ Unde nos iustis et legittimis ipsius fratris Mathie supplicationibus inclinati predictam litteram capituli ecclesie 70 nostre Agriensis predicte quoad omnes articulos eius et continen tias in eadem expressatas et factas ratam et gratam habentes et acceptantes, eandem auctoritate nostra ordinaria duximus confirmandam, ymmo confirmamus realiter et effective.

In cuius rei memoriam firmitatemque perpetuam presentes litteras nostras privielgiales sigillo nostro anulari communitas eisdem fratribus duximus concedendas.

Supplicatum itaque extitit nostre maiestati in personis eorundem fratrum heremitarum, ut easdem litteras ratas, gratas et acceptas habendo nostrisque litteris privilegialibus de verbo ad verbum inderi et inscribi faciendo premisse do- nacioni, perpetuacioni ac aliis omnibus in tenore earundem litterarum contentis nostrum re- gium consensum prebere dignaremur pariter et assensum.

Quarumquidem litterarum tenor 95 talis est: [ Nos igitur huiusmodi supplicationibus nostre modo quo supra porrectis maies- tati regia benignitate admissis prescriptas litteras dicti capituli ecclesie Agriensis non abrasas, non cancellatas nec in aliqua sui parte suspectas presentibusque litteris nostris privilegialibus de verbo ad verbum sine diminutione et augmento aliquali insertas quoad omnes earundem continencias, clausulas et articulos, eatenus quatenus eedem rite et legittime existunt emanate viribusque earum veritas suffragatur, ratas, gratas et acceptas habendo premissis donacioni et perpetuacioni ac omnibus et singulis aliis superius in tenore earunden litterarum contentis et expressis ex certa nostra sciencia et animo deliberato nostrum consensum regium prebuimus, ymmo prebemus benivolum pariter et assensum, salvis iuribus alienis harum nostrarum, quibus secretum sigillum, quo ut rex Hungarie utimur, est appensum, vigore et testimonio litterarum mediante.

Datum Bude, feria quarta proxima post dominicam Invocavit, Anno Domini millesimo quadringentesimo septuagesimo primo, regni nostri anno quarto decimo, coronationis vero septimo.

In order to secure the proper operation of the hospital he later — as attested by this charter — charged the Pauline monastery in Gönc Gench to take care of the hospital and transferred all the possessions of the hospital a property called Cheches, a vineyard, a meadow, a mill and several places for mills on the River Olchawa to the monastery on condition that the friars had to celebrate two masses in the Saint Catherine church per week — or if it was not possible there, then in the Virgin Mary monastery church in Gönc — for the souls of the founders, Mathias the priest and his parents.

The Paulines, a hermitic order founded in Hungary, were not a typical order for running hospitals. The choice fell on them probably because of their strong presence in northeast Hungary in the fifteenth century The information in these documents is complemented by the results of the archaeological excavation of the hospital Sopron, July Edition: Anita D.

He was of noble origin. In he was canon of Esztergom, in the provost of Pozsony. He studied in Vienna. As a first step in his ecclesiastical career, he became the abbot of Pannonhalma — After a political struggle for the vacant bishopric of Eger between and , he won the seat.

He also took an active part in the fight against the Hussites. Publicirt den 27 Augusti im 82ist[en]. Bey der Perttingerin, camrerin zu Prespurg, ist in ainem ring ain grosser sophier versetzt, umb acht taller, den soll man lösen.

Ittem dem Anndre Haindl, apoteckher, bin ich schuldig worden vierzig taller, daran hab ich ime bezallt zwanzig taller. Dem Georg Moriz, apoteckher, bin ich ungevar schuldig bey zwanzig taller.

Jeztgemeldtes herren stattschreibers schwieger ist mir auch ain angebautte joch trait schuldig, die schaff ich dem heren Jacoben Fällenstainer, gegenschreiber alhie zu Oedenburg, unnd ain lideren sessel seiner hausfrawen.

Dem Adam Laxentaller mein khleins ührl. Denn schüellern unnd armen leuthen zu Oedenburg zehen taller. Dem herren Andre Pfentner, predicanten im spittal, ain silberen leffel, darauf mein wap- pen, so noch beim golldtschmidt.

Ich will auch vermeldt haben, das ich ainezo bey mir zu Oedenburg in meinem vermu- egen hab vier guldene ring, deren ainer mein pedtschafftring, ain denckh ring, ain weisser sophier unnd ain gamäho, zwen lidere pölster, ain uhr, ain khlaines ührl, zwo lanng püchs- sen, zwey par faustpüchssen unnd ain säbl, auch ain polsterl, so im sessel gelegen.

The rich collection of sixteenth- to eighteenth-century last wills in the town archives of Sopron Oedenburgh, Ödenburg includes several items from persons connected to various medical professions barbers, pharmacists, bath owners, doctors, midwives and to the town hospital hospital masters.

Dreskhy came from Pomerania, from a place called Alt-Repping Alltten Repping auss Pommern , twelve miles from Berlin. His mother, also mentioned in the will, lived in Stettin Stetin, Sczeczin.

It turns out from the will that Dreskhy had relations in the nearby Pozsony Prespurg, Pressburg, Bratislava ; most probably he had his practice in both places or he arrived to Sopron from Pozsony.

The will provides a good overview of his social network, which included members of the new Lutheran intelligentsia of the town: He had good contacts with Andre Pfendtner, the hospital priest Spitalpfarrer between and , who was the first to side openly with Protestantism, for which he was expelled from the town on royal order He was also on friendly terms with Abraham Schremel, the new rector of the local Latin school — , a pupil of Johann Sturm in Strasbourg, who had founded or directed several Protes- tant schools in Upper Hungary e.

The two itinerant scholars may have known each other from before. The two executors of his will, Erhard Artner c. The two other witnesses of the will, Niclas Polani and Matheus Stadthueber, became members of the town council in the s and s The whole will shows the 62 See Katalin Szende, Spitalbesitz und Konfessionalisierung.

Festschrift für Helmut Bräuer, ed. Katrin Keller—Gerald Diesener—Gabriele Viertel Chemnitz 70— Part 2]. Soproni Szemle 50 —, here Budapest 1 31s.

His connection to a retainer of Julius of Salm Graff Julius von Salm , royal chamber- lain and imperial chancellor, who owed him the price of a good horse, testifies that he had probably led an eventful life before arriving in Sopron.

Gyöngyös, February 6. Költ Gyöngyösön 6. In the confraternity of the hospital coetus xenodochialis was no longer in existence, since in that year the widow of the former donator of a hospital mill gave permission to one of her tenant peasants to maintain one quarter of that mill until the hospital confraternity was re-established and could take back its property.

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Frank Curtis King of the Mountain Barry Tanner The Jazz Singer Unnamed The Mountain Men La Bont There is no such thing as a perfect, ideal or 'correct' trans- most national and many regional languages.

Unfortunately there is no correspond- lation. A translator is always trying to extend his knowledge and improve his means ing centripetal cultural movement from 'regional' or peripheral authors.

He works on four levels: That translation is not merely a transmitter of culture, but also of the truth, a translation is first a science, which entails the knowledge and verification of the force for progress, could be instanced by following the course of resistance to Bible facts and the language that describes them - here, what is wrong, mistakes of truth, translation and the preservation of Latin as a superior language of the elect, with a can be identified; secondly, it is a skill, which calls for appropriate language and consequent disincentive to translating between other languages.

This is its strong point in foreign-language differences. Even a method appropriately used for a certain type of text, and it is therefore dependent sentence such as: on a functional theory of language.

However, in a wider sense, translation theory is the body of knowledge that we have about translating, extending from general Qu'une maille sautat parfois a ce tissu de perfection auquel Bngitte Pian travaillait avec une principles to guidelines, suggestions and hints.

The only rule I know is the equal vigilance de toutes les secondes, c'dtait dans I'ordre el elle s'en consolait pouruu que cefut sans temoin.

Translation theory is concerned with minutiae the meanings of semi-colons, italics, misprints as well as generalities presentation, That a stitch should sometimes break in that tissue of perfection at which Brigitte Pian the thread of thought underlying a piece , and both may be equally important in the was working with a vigilance to which she devoted every second, this was in order and context.

Translation theory in action, translation theory used operationally for the purpose of reviewing all the options in particular, sensitising the translator to which proves that each word construction is understood, where a more likely those he had not been aware of and then making the decisions - in fact the teeth of reading would be: the theory - is a frame of reference for translation and translation criticism, relating first to complete texts, where it has most to say, then, in descending level, to If Brigitte Pian sometimes dropped a stitch in the admirable material she was working on with such unremitting vigilance, it was in the natural order of things and she found paragraphs, sentences, clauses, word groups in particular, collocations , words - consolation for it, provided she had no witnesses.

Note that metaphor, perhaps the most significant translation continually faced with choices, for instance when he has to translate words problem, may occur at all levels - from word to text, at which level it becomes an denoting quality, the words of the mental world adjectives, adverbs, adjectival allegory or a fantasy.

In making his What translation theory does is, first, to identify and define a translation choice, he is intuitively or consciously following a theory of translation, just as any problem no problem - no translation theory!

La traduction appelle une theorie that have to be taken into account in solving the problem; third, to list all the en acte, Jean-Rene Ladmiral has written.

Translation calls on a theory in action; the possible translation procedures; finally, to recommend the most suitable trans- translator reviews the criteria for the various options before he makes his selection lation procedure, plus the appropriate translation.

Translation theory is pointless and sterile if it does not arise from the The personal pleasure derived from translation is the excitement of trying to problems of translation practice, from the need to stand back and reflect, to solve a thousand small probluns in the context of a large one.

Mystery, jigsaw, consider all the factors, within the text and outside it, before coming to a decision. But pleasure lies in play opposed to, say, at the beginning of the century: rather than in seriousness.

The chase after words and facts is unremitting and requires imagination. There is an exceptional attraction in the search for the right 1 The emphasis on the readership and the setting, and therefore on naturalness, word, just out of reach, the semantic gap between two languages that one scours ease of understanding and an appropriate register, when these factors are Roget to fill.

The relief of finding it, the 'smirk' after hitting on the right word when appropriate. These now vastly outnumber books, so it is difficult to calculate the number or the languages of translations on any large scale.

CHAPTER 2 6 The impact of linguistics, sociolinguistics and translation theory, which will become apparent only as more translators pass through polytechnics and The Analysis of a Text universities.

In sum, it all adds up to a new discipline, a new profession; an old pursuit engaged in now for mainly different purposes.

READING THE TEXT You begin the job by reading the original for two purposes: first, to understand what it is about; second, to analyse it from a 'translator's' point of view, which is not the same as a linguist's or a literary critic's.

You have to determine its intention and the way it is written for the purpose of selecting a suitable translation method and identifying particular and recurrent problems.

Understanding the text requires both general and close reading. General reading to get the gist; here you may have to read encyclopaedias, textbooks, or specialist papers to understand the subject and the concepts, always bearing in mind that for the translator the function precedes the description - the important thing about the neutrino in context is not that it is a stable elementary particle, preserving the law of conservation of mass and energy, but that now the neutrino has been found to have mass, the Universe is calculated to be twice as large as previously thought.

A knife is for cutting with, but the blade and the handle are important too - they distinguish the knife from the scissors. Close reading is required, in any challenging text, of the words both out of and in context.

In principle, everything has to be looked up that does not make good sense in its context; common words like serpent F , to ensure they are not being used musically or figuratively sly, deceitful, unscupulous or technically EEC currency or colloquially; neologisms - you will likely find many if you are translating a recent publication for 'non-equivalent' words, see p.

You can compare the translating rather than how to adapt them in order to persuade or instruct a new TL reader- activity to an iceberg: the tip is the translation - what is visible, what is written on ship.

And again, he may be translating a manual of instructions for a less educated the page - the iceberg, the activity, is all the work you do, often ten times as much readership, so that the explanation in his translation may be much larger than the again, much of which you do not even use.

THE INTENTION OF THE TEXT TEXT STYLES In reading, you search for the intention of the text, you cannot isolate this from understanding it, they go together and the title may be remote from the content as Following Nida, we distinguish four types of literary or non-literary text: well as the intention.

Two texts may describe a battle or a riot or a debate, stating 1 Narrative: a dynamic sequence of events, where the emphasis is on the verbs or, the same facts and figures, but the type of language used and even the grammatical for English, 'dummy' or 'empty' verbs plus verb-nouns or phrasal verbs 'He structures passive voice, impersonal verbs often used to disclaim responsibility in made a sudden appearance', 'He burst in'.

The intention of the text 2 Description, which is static, with emphasis on linking verbs, adjectives, represents the SL writer's attitude to the subject matter.

A piece about floors may be 'pushing' floor polishes; about newspapers, a 3 Discussion, a treatment of ideas, with emphasis on abstract nouns concepts , condemnation of the press; about nuclear weapons, an advertisement for them - verbs of thought, mental activity 'consider', 'argue', etc.

What is meant by 'That was clever of him'? Is it ironical, openly or implicitly? In a text showing that BBC Radio 2 is a pale imitation of commercial radio, the irony may only be implicit and obscure to a non-British reader, and the translator may want to make the point more explicitly.

It may be 'iceberg' work to find out, On the basis of the variety of language used in the original, you attempt to since the tone may come through in a literal translation, but the translator has to be characterise the readership of the original and then of the translation, and to decide aware of it.

In the case of a poem or any Again, in a detailed, confused piece about check-ups on elderly patients who work written primarily as self-expression the amount is, I suggest, very little.

You may have to undergo chemotherapy the author's intention is to show that patients may try to assess the level of education, the class, age and sex of the readership if must have a thorough physical check-up before they start a course of drugs: if these are 'marked'.

The average text for translation tends to be for an educated, middle-class A summary of this nature, which uses only a few key words from the original, readership in an informal, not colloquial style.

The most common variety of appears to be isolated from the language, simply to show what happens in real life, 'marked' error in register among student translators tends to be 'colloquial' and and it is indispensable to the translator.

But he still has to 'return' to the text. He 'intimate', e. The other common error, use of formal or official register e. All this will help you to decide on the degree of But he may be translating an advertisement, a notice, or a set of instructions to formality, generality or specificity and emotional tone you must express when you show his client how such matters are formulated and written in the source language, work on the text.

I suggest: Note that there is some correlation between formality and emotional tone, in that an official style is likely to be factual, whilst colloquialisms and slang tend to be Officialese 'The consumption of any nutriments whatsoever is categoric- emotive.

In translating, the effusiveness of Italian, the formality and stiffness of ally prohibited in this establishment. Neutral 'Eating is not allowed here.

In not so informal language, translate de mains standards of the writer. If he writes 'good', 'fair', 'average', 'competent', en mains by 'decreasingly', tout a fait by 'entirely', d'un seul coup by 'at one attempt' 'adequate', 'satisfactory', 'middling', 'poor', 'excellent'; are his standards relative or 'simultaneously.

Often Similarly, I suggest the following scale of generality or difficulty: there is only a thin line in the critical difference between a positive and a negative Simple opinion, which is not clarified by the 'middle' words I have listed.

The floor of the sea is covered with rows of big mountains and deep pits. The trenches. Regime Neutral using basic vocabulary only 'government' is neutral in French but negative in English.

What is the TL equivalent of the SL periodical, newspaper, textbook, Opaquely technical comprehensible only to an expert journal, etc?

You may have to take account of briefer titles, absence of sub-titles isolated by Klenk from gangliosides. You have to make several assumptions about the SL readership.

From the I suggest the following scale of emotional tone: setting of the SL text, as well as the text itself, you should assess whether the readership is likely to be motivated keen to read the text , familiar with the topic Intense profuse use of intensifers 'hot' and the culture, and 'at home' in the variety of language used.

The three typical 'Absolutely wonderful. Finally, if you are translating a poem or an Factual 'cool' important authoritative statement, should you consider the TL reader at all, apart 'Significant, exceptionally well judged, personable, presentable, consid- from concessions or cultural 'scraps' to help him out e.

In fact, the greater the quantity of a language's resources e. The quality of the writing has to worthwhile.

If the text is well written, i. Deciding what is good writing is sometimes Finally, you should note the cultural aspect of the SL text; you should underline all criticised as 'subjective' but it is a decision, like many others, not subjective but neologisms, metaphors, cultural words and institutional terms peculiar to the SL with a subjective element the area of taste which you have to make, using any or third language, proper names, technical terms and 'untranslatable' words.

If a text is well written, the words relating to the mind, that have no cognates in the TL, e. Words will be freshly used with unusual from dialect.

You underline words that you have to consider out of as well as within connotations. A badly written text will be cluttered with stereotyped phrases, context, in order to establish their semantic range, their frontiers: unlike Humpty, recently fashionable general words and probably poorly structured.

Note that you cannot normally decide to make any word mean what you want, and there are language rules and prescriptions have nothing much to do with good writing.

What normally limits to the meaning of any word. The purpose of dictionaries is to matters is a fresh reflection of the reality outside language or of the writer's mind.

If the SL writer is I should say here whilst the meaning of a completely context-determined recognised as important in his field, and he is making an ex-cathedra or official word may appear to be remote from its non-contextual core meaning there must statement, the text is also authoritative.

The point is that 'expressive' texts, i. Thus it might appear to be beyond reason serious imaginative literature and authoritative and personal statements, have to be that the French word communication could possibly mean 'fistula', but it can be translated closely, matching the writing, good or bad, of the original.

Informative translated as such if the fistula is a way of communication between the aorta and the texts, statements that relate primarily to the truth, to the real facts of the matter, pulmonary artery.

Sometimes the link is a secret code. Bear in mind that whilst all texts have connotations, an aura of ideas and feelings suggested by lexical words crudely, 'run' may suggest 'haste', 'sofa' may suggest 'comfort' , and all texts have an 'underlife' viz.

But in a literary text, you have to give precedence to its connotations, the first stage of translation and the basis of the useful discipline of translation since, if it is any good, it is an allegory, a comment on society, at the time and now, criticism.

In fact, such an analysis is, I think, an appropriate training for trans- as well as on its strict setting. A professional translator would not usually make such an analysis explicitly, since he would need to take only a sample in order to establish the properties of a text.

A translation critic, however, after determining the general properties - first of the text and secondly of the translation both these tasks would centre in the respective intentions of translator and critic - would use the under- CHAPTER 3 lined words as a basis for a detailed comparison of the two texts.

To summarise, you have to study the text not for itself but as something that The Process of Translating may have to be reconstituted for a different readership in a different culture.

It begins with choosing a method of approach. Secondly, when we are translating, we translate with four levels more or less consciously in mind: 1 the SL text level, the level of language, where we begin and which we continually but not continuously go back to; 2 the referential level, the level of objects and events, real or imaginary, which we progressively have to visualise and build up, and which is an essential part, first of the comprehension, then of the reproduction process; 3 the cohesive level, which is more general, and grammatical, which traces the train of thought, the feeling tone positive or negative and the various presuppositions of the SL text.

This level encompasses both comprehension and reproduction: it presents an overall picture, to which we may have to adjust the language level; 4 the level of naturalness, of common language appropriate to the writer or the speaker in a certain situation.

Again, this is a generalised level, which constitutes a band within which the translator works, unless he is translating an authoritative text, in which case he sees the level of naturalness as a point of reference to determine the deviation - if any - between the author's level he is pursuing and the natural level.

This level of naturalness is concerned only with reproduction. Finally, there is the revision procedure, which may be concentrated or staggered according to the situation.

This procedure constitutes at least half of the complete process. Both in its referential and its pragmatic aspect, reflect any deviation from a 'natural' style.

The nature of naturalness is discussed in it has an invariant factor, but this factor cannot be precisely defined since it detail in my exposition of the theory of translating below; 'naturalness' is both depends on the requirements and constraints exercised by one original on one grammatical and lexical, and is a touchstone at every level of a text, from paragraph translation.

All one can do is to produce an argument with translation examples to to word, from title to punctuation. Nothing is purely objective or subjective.

There are no cast-iron rules. The level of naturalness binds translation theory to translating theory, and Everything is more or less.

There is an assumption of 'normally' or 'usually' or translating theory to practice. The remainder of my translating theory is in essence 'commonly' behind each well-established principle; as I have stated earlier, quali- psychological - the relationship between language and 'reality' though all we know fications such as 'always', 'never', 'must' do not exist - there are no absolutes.

If one accepts this theory of translating, there is no gap between translation There are two approaches to translating and many compromises between theory and practice.

The theory of translating is based, via the level of naturalness, them : 1 you start translating sentence by sentence, for say the first paragraph or on a theory of translation.

Therefore one arrives at the scheme shown in Figure 2. Which of the two methods you choose may depend on your temperament, or on whether you trust your intuition for the first method or your powers of analysis for the second.

Alternatively, you may think the first method more suitable for a literary and the second for a technical or an institutional text.

The danger of the first method is that it may leave you with too much revision to do on the early part, and is therefore time-wasting. The second method usually preferable can be mechanical; a translational text analysis is useful as a point of reference, but it should not inhibit the free play of your intuition.

Alternatively, you may prefer the first approach for a relatively easy text, the second for a harder one. From the point of view of the translator, any scientific investigation, both statistical and diagrammatic some linguists and translation theorists make a fetish of diagrams, schemas and models , of what goes on in the brain mind?

The contribution of psycholinguistics to translation is limited: the positive, neutral or negative pragmatic effect of a word e.

Osgood's work on semantic differentials is helpful, since the difference between 'positive' and 'negative' i. The heart of translation theory is translation problems admitting that what is a problem to one THE APPROACH translator may not be to another ; translation theory broadly consists of, and can be defined as, a large number of generalisations of translation problems.

A theoretical A translation is something that has to be discussed. In too many schools and discussion of the philosoph; and the psychology of translation is remote from the universities, it is still being imposed as an exercise in felicitous English style, where translator's problems.

Whether you produce a statistical survey through question- the warts of the original are ignored. The teacher more or less imposes a fair copy naires of what a hundred translators think they think when they translate, or which is a 'model' of his own English rather than proposing a version for discussion whether you follow what one translator goes through, mental stage by mental stage, and criticism by students, some of whom will be brighter than he is.

Can you visualise it? If you cannot, you have to 'supplement' substituting encyclopaedia descriptions for dictionary definitions, using the best- the linguistic level, the text level with the referential level, the factual level with the sounding synonyms for literary translation, transferring all Graeco-Latin words, necessary additional information no more from this level of reality, the facts of the continuous paraphrasing, etc.

But there is never any point in scientifically proving matter. In real life, what is the setting or scene, who are the actors or agents, what is the obvious.

This may or may not take you away temporarily from the words in the text. And certainly it is all too easy to immerse yourself in language and to detach yourself from the reality, real or imaginary, that is being described.

Far more THE TEXTUAL LEVEL acutely than writers wrestling with only one language, you become aware of the awful gap between words and objects, sentences and actions or processes , Working on the text level, you intuitively and automatically make certain 'con- grammar and moods or attitudes.

You have to gain perspective distacco, recut , to versions'; you transpose the SL grammar clauses and groups into their 'ready' TL stand back from the language and have an image of the reality behind the text, a equivalents and you translate the lexical units into the sense that appears immedi- reality for which you, and not the author unless it is an expressive or an authorita- ately appropriate in the context of the sentence.

Your base level when you translate is the text. This is the level of the literal The referential goes hand in hand with the textual level.

All languages have translation of the source language into the target language, the level of the trans- polysemous words and structures which can be finally solved only on the referential lationese you have to eliminate, but it also acts as a corrective of paraphrase and the level, beginning with a few multi-purpose, overloaded prepositions and conjunc- parer-down of synonyms.

So a part of your mind may be on the text level whilst tions, through dangling participles 'reading the paper, the dog barked loudly' to another is elsewhere.

Translation is pre-eminently the occupation in which you general words. The referential level, where you mentally sort out the text, is built have to be thinking of several things at the same time.

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